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Abstract (2. Language): 
Introduction The objective of this study is to determine the meanings attributed by candidate teachers and students on Dardanelles Wars through the metaphors they create. Starting from this point, the problem situation of the work was determined as “How is the state of metaphor creation of candidate teachers and students on Dardanelles Wars?” The sub-problems determined based on the problem situation are as follows: 1- How is the level of metaphor creation of candidate teachers and students on “Dardanelles wars” in terms of the level of the class? 2- Considering their mutual features, under which categories the metaphors of Candidate teachers and students on Dardanelles Wars are gather? Conceptual Framework Metaphor (simile), also defined as the art of using words outside their actual meanings, is a literary art frequently used for strengthening the words, providing depth to words and expressing the states or situations that sometimes cannot be expressed in many words in the most effective and brief way. http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mecaz). According to Saban (2008), a metaphor is the structure that is formed by the expression that X is similar to Y in an explicit or implicit manner. By means of metaphors, the concepts of which meaning we are unable to make clear become easier to be understood by our mind through concrete expressions that have occurred or are likely to occur. This way, the metaphor used ensures understanding even if the concept does not mean anything (Soydaş; 2010). By means of metaphors, many abstract concepts can be placed into schemas that have already been created in our minds more easily, and they help the facilitation and permanence of learning. Metaphor has ranked among the instruction techniques used in education for this purpose in recent years. Especially in subjects such as history that do not include many concrete materials and elements, traces of the past can be instructed more easily to students by means of metaphors. Furthermore, using positive metaphors to be created, establishing a strong bond between the students and the past can be facilitated. With this study, it was endeavoured to reflect how university students, who will become classroom teachers in primary schools, social studies teachers in secondary schools and History teachers in high schools and who will teach this subject, perceive the Dardanelles Wars as future teachers, while at the same time putting forth how the Dardanelles Wars are perceived by students at basic education and secondary education level.Method This research that aims to determine the metaphor use by candidate teachers and students who receive education at licence, secondary school and primary school level on Dardanelles War, was designed and conducted in descriptive survey model. That the subject of the study is examined by the learners and teachers from basic education to higher education shows that the study is dealt with longitudinally. Data were obtained with the Document Review technique in accordance with the qualitative research method. The word qualitative emphasises the qualities of the contents. And qualitative researches try to answer the question how social experience is created and how these experiences are construed (Denzin and Lincoln 2003). The working group of the research is composed of 763 students in total who receive education at primary school, secondary school and licence level in Adıyaman province. This working group includes 285 students studying at 8th grade from 7 schools in total, 214 students in total studying at 12th grade from 5 schools, and 264 candidate teachers consisting of 4th grade students studying at Adıyaman University, Faculty of Education, Classroom Teaching and Social Studies Teaching and students taking History Teacher teaching formation training in Adıyaman University. The research was conducted at the end of spring term of 2013-2014 academic year. In order to reveal the metaphors on the concept “Dardanelles War” of the students and candidate teachers participating in the research, each student was handed a blank paper on which the following expression is written, “Dardanelles War is like ….; because ….” The students were asked to express their thoughts using this expression and concentrating on a single metaphor. In studies where metaphors are used as a means of research Saban 2004, 2008, 2009; Aydın, 2010; Coşkun, 2010; Kaya, 2010), the word “like” is generally used in order to associate the bond between the “subject of the metaphor” and the “source of metaphor” more clearly. By including the word “because” in the sentence, candidate teachers and students participating in the study were asked to provide a “justification” for their own metaphors. Examples from different subjects were provided in the document created in order to make students and candidate teachers better understand the concept metaphor. However, attention was paid not to be directive. In this study, the “content analysis” technique was used in order to assess the data obtained. Findings and Discussion The first sub-problem of the research is to reveal the states of metaphor use of students and candidate teachers on the concept Dardanelles war by the level of education. It was determined that the rate of metaphor use of 264 participants consisting of Social Studies, Classroom and History candidate teachers on Dardanelles war is 72.12%, the rate of metaphor use of high school students studying at the 12th grade is 59%, and of 8th grade students is 45%. This finding shows that there is linear relationship between the level of education and the ability to create metaphors on the concept Dardanelles war. In other words, as the level of education rises, the capacities of the students to create metaphors increase. It was observed that the rate of creating metaphors on Dardanelles war especially by primary school 8th grade students is less than half. It was determined that the rate of metaphor created by students at all three levels on the concept “Dardanelles War” is 60% in total, and the frequency as 460. The second sub-problem of the research is to determine the variability of the metaphors created by students and candidate teachers on the concept Dardanelles war and the emerging themes. For this purpose, themes consisting of the data obtained and metaphors created under these themes were shown in tables. Metaphors produced by candidate teachers and students with regard to Dardanelles wars were gathered under the following themes: Struggle, Existence, Rebirth, Demolition-Chaos, Solidarity, Taking Lesson from the Past. Conclusion and Suggestions According to this research, the rate of creating metaphors by the participants of the concept Dardanelles war was determined as 58%. Around 40% of the total participants failed to express themselves without using similes or analogies on Dardanelles war. It was concluded that Classroom Candidate Teachers, Social Studies Candidate Teachers and History Candidate Teachers who will teach the Dardanelles Wars to their students at different levels of education as future teachers are more successful at producing metaphors when compared to participants of other levels of education. This changes in parallel to the increase in the level of education of the student. The enrichment of the language treasure both with more life experiences and the increase in the level of education, and having more content when compared to the students at education level by the subject rendered candidate teachers successful. However, that students studying at 8th grade answered incorrectly, inadequately and illogically to the question “What do you associate the Dardanelles war with?” at a rate of 55% is meaningful in terms of the perception of victory, of which 100th year we are about to celebrate. While candidate teachers were able to explain the Dardanelles wars using 123 different metaphors, high school students explained them using 99 different metaphors. In the 8th grade of the secondary school, Dardanelles Wars were used by turning into a metaphor with 74 different concepts. This consequence supports the above-mentioned situation. For candidate teachers and Students, Dardanelles war is associated with struggle, as well as existence, demolition-chaos, rebirth, taking lesson from the past and solidarity, when compared to others. The themes solidarity and taking lesson from the past are used less frequently than other themes. In all three levels of education, metaphor samples were encountered both at the points of association with their lives and establishing a bond with the interests and periodic features. The participants who associated KPSS, YGS and TEOG exams with Dardanelles wars also associated the struggle in the sports in the extent of the teams that they support or follow up. Furthermore, the effect of the literature known about Dardanelles wars also reflected on the metaphors used. Literary sources such as The Last Castle Dardanelles, and the Armageddon of Dardanelles affected the perception of the students. Furthermore; the metaphors phoenix, breath, doors, examination, apocalypse, armageddon, rebirth and light were used at all three levels of education. In the study carried out by Altun (2014) on historical curiosity, it was found that Dardanelles Wars ranks as the second most interesting subject to candidate Classroom Teachers following the conquest of Istanbul. In addition, candidate teachers reflected on the lifting of the artillery shell by Corporal Seyit in the sense of historical importance. In the same study, it was indicated that the historical places that classroom teachers are most interested in are the places where Dardanelles wars took place. Candidate teachers attributed the justification of their interest with regard to Dardanelles wars to its historical importance. In another study carried out with candidate history teachers (Keleş, Şahin et al.;2013), candidate teachers chose Dardanelles Naval Wars as the most significant event of the naval history. They indicated that Dardanelles Wars have an important role both in the history of the Ottoman State and the Republic of Turkey. In the study carried out by Sezen (2010) on the way of perception of Dardanelles wars by university students, the tendency to see it as a liberation struggle where Turkish nation showed perseverance, determination and unity was revealed. In analogy to this finding, the participants puts the national emotions, religious and spiritual motivations and the ingenuity and skills of the commanders, i.e. the military aspect of the war to the first three places as the effective factors in Dardanelles victory. While it was observed that the perceptions of candidate teachers participating in Keçe’s (2014) study towards the concepts provided to them do not lead to much difference of perception on the basis of the groups (candidate social studies and history teachers), however candidate history teachers developed various metaphors by attributing more creative meanings and meanings other than the recognized definitions of the concepts. When the studies on the perceptions towards historical concepts are examined, Demoulin and Kolstad (2000) revealed the result that the perception of democracy of candidate teacher increases as the level of class rises (Akt. Keçe;2014). Yalçınkaya (2013) obtained such results that 8th grade students develop more metaphors on the didactic aspect of the concept history. In the metaphor study on the “concept of history of primary school students” carried out by Yalçınkaya (2010), the result that history is a pile of experiences was obtained. In the study carried out by Er Tuna and Mazman Budak (2013), it was observed that candidate teachers frequently use the metaphors of mirror, water and life on the concept “history” just like in this study. Metaphors can be used as a tool for increasing the meaningful learning of the students in many subjects just as the historical subjects. In this process, teachers can provide different points-of-view to students by using different metaphors in order to ensure the learning. Examples with the expressions containing metaphors on the Dardanelles war can be included in course books in order to facilitate concretization and signification. Furthermore, that the students use concepts in a way that they reflect different points of view through metaphors as is also observed in the data collection process of this research was able to attract the interest of the teachers and students participating in the research. At this point, the importance of this situation should be explained to teachers and candidate teachers
Abstract (Original Language): 
Bir kavramı, olayı, olguyu veya varlığı mecaz bir anlatımla ifade etme şekli olarak açıklanan metafor, son yıllarda eğitimde sıkça başvurulan öğretim teknikleri arasında yer almaktadır. Yapılan çalışmalar bireylerin oluşturdukları metaforların geçmiş bilgi ve deneyimlerinden etkilendiği sonucunu ortaya koymaktadır. Türk tarihinin öğretiminde de bireylerin geçmişte yaşamış kişilere, olaylara veya tarihi kavramlara ilişkin görüşleri kullandıkları metaforlar aracılığıyla tespit edilmeye çalışılmaktadır. Çanakkale zaferinin öğretimi de bu açıdan öğretim programlarında ayrı bir öneme sahiptir. Bu tarihi zaferin öğrencilerde ve öğretmen adaylarında bıraktığı iz, oluşturdukları metaforlar aracılığıyla da belirlenebilir. Bu çalışmanın amacı Adıyaman ilinde öğrenim gören sosyal bilgiler, sınıf öğretmenliği ve tarih öğretmen adaylarının, 8. Sınıf ortaokul öğrencilerinin ve ortaöğretim 12. Sınıf öğrencilerinin “Çanakkale Savaşı” kavramı üzerine oluşturdukları metaforları belirlemeye çalışmaktır. Nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden doküman incelemesi ile yürütülen araştırmanın verilerini elde etmek için araştırmacılar tarafından görüşme formu oluşturulmuştur. Görüşme formunda metafor ile ilgili gerekli açıklama yapıldıktan sonra farklı kavramlarla ilgili metafor örnekleri verilmiştir. Elde edilen veriler içerik analizi ile analiz edilerek benzer metaforlar aynı kategoride toplanmıştır. Sonuç olarak öğretmen adaylarının sırayla lise ve ortaokul öğrencilerine göre daha fazla metafor kullandıkları anlaşılmıştır. Ayrıca başta “Mücadele” olmak üzere, “Var Olma”, “Yıkım”, “Yeniden Doğuş” ve “Tarihten Ders Alma” temaları altında öğrenci ve öğretmen adayları metaforlar oluşturmuşlardır.



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