La implicaciön emocional en el puesto de trabajo: Un estudio empfrico

The emotional involvement in the workplace: An empirical study

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Abstract (2. Language): 
Purpose: In a multitude of studies, it is verified that the generation of positive attitudes for employees such as job satisfaction or job involvement, have a positive influence on productivity levels of companies. The current investigation focus on the identification of employee-profile -who is emotionally involved with their work activity- through the use of a set of individual, job related and attitudinal factors.Design/methodology: A review of the literature about the main factors that affect the job involvement particularly on its emotional dimension has been completed. For its measurement at the empirical level, various items related to psychological well being of employees included in the IV European Working Conditions Survey-2010 are used. Moreover, those items are identified in Job Involvement Questionnaire (Lodahl & Kejner, 1965). Since then, an empirical and multidimensional study is carried out by applying a logistic regression model on the sample of 11,149 employees obtained with European survey cited previously. Findings: The logistic regression model identifies the factors, which are directly related to emotional involvement at the workplace. Ultimately, is raised a definitive model that define the European employee-profile -who is emotionally involved at the workplace-: a rather aged person who has been working at his/her present place of employment for several years in a medium-sized company where possibly there exist a good working relationship between workers and their superiors –social support-. These employees are “white-collar” workers, have career advancement opportunities in the organizational hierarchy. They perform variety, flexible and complex tasks, which leads to satisfaction in terms of pay and working conditions. Research limitations/implications: Emotional involvement has been measured through self-awareness and, therefore, the corresponding bias in the key variable must be assumed. In addition, the casual relationship between emotional involvement and the variables taken into account in our study must be relativized, as the data under study are cross-sectional and not experimental. Originality/value: A global emotional involvement model has been estimated with which was confirmed the impact of the individual, job related or situational factors for both employees emotionally involved and those not involved.
Abstract (Original Language): 
Objeto: En multitud de estudios se constata como la generación de actitudes positivas en los empleados –tales como satisfacción, implicación laboral-, incide favorablemente en los niveles de productividad. La presente investigación centra la atención en la identificación del perfil de los empleados implicados emocionalmente con su actividad laboral a partir de un conjunto de factores individuales, laborales, organizativos y actitudinales. Diseño/metodología/enfoque: Se ha realizado una revisión bibliográfica de los principales factores que influyen en la implicación laboral sobre todo en su dimensión emocional. Para su medición a nivel empírico, se han empleado varios de los ítems incluidos en la IV Encuesta Europea de Condiciones de Trabajo relacionados con el bienestar psicológico de los trabajadores e identificados a partir del cuestionario sobre implicación laboral planteado originalmente por Lodahl y Kejner (1965). Posteriormente se desarrolla un estudio empírico multidimensional aplicando un modelo de regresión logística a una muestra de 11.149 trabajadores obtenida de la encuesta europea citada. Aportaciones y resultados: El modelo de regresión logística identifica los factores relacionados directamente con la implicación emocional en el puesto de trabajo. En última instancia se plantea un modelo definitivodonde se define el perfil del asalariado europeo implicado emocionalmente con su puesto: una persona de cierta edad que lleva trabajando varios años en su actual puesto en una empresa de dimensión reducida, donde posiblemente existan buenas relaciones entre compañeros y superiores -apoyo social-. Estos empleados ocupan puestos de cuello blanco, disponen de oportunidades de promoción dentro de la jerarquía de la empresa. Las tareas que desempeñan son variadas, flexibles y complejas, lo que provoca un sentimiento general de satisfacción con las condiciones laborales y con el salario percibido. Limitaciones: Posibles problemas de sesgo debido a la medición de la implicación emocional a través de la autopercepción. Asimismo, la relación causal entre implicación y las variables explicativas debe ser relativizada, al tratarse de un estudio transversal y no experimental. Implicaciones prácticas: A partir de los resultados obtenidos se podría actuar sobre el grado de implicación emocional de los trabajadores incidiendo en aquellas variables relacionadas con el fenómeno objeto de investigación. Focalizando en el impacto del diseño de los puestos de trabajo sobre las reacciones afectivas de sus empleados. Originalidad / Valor añadido: Se ha estimado un modelo global de implicación en el que se constata la incidencia de factores a diversos niveles (individual, organizativo,…) tanto para las personas implicadas emocionalmente como no implicadas.



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