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Author NameUniversity of Author
Abstract (2. Language): 
Russian Politics since 1990 witnessed an essential change which was expected to be a democratic transition. However, Putin’s presidency beginning with 2000 represented a turning mainly depending on the power vertical. This study aims at clarifying functions of informal politics in the construction and operation of Russia’s Managed Democracy since 2000. Through identifying practical responses to theoretical considerations I tried to put forward how the informal networks that traced back to Soviet period and Yeltsin’s presidency shaped political life of today’s Russia. Since it is hard to identify informal political networks, the findings of this study could only reach those evidence that were publicly declared or accepted by those in power.



Foreign Affairs (2014). How Russia Really Works: The Informal Practices That Shaped Post-Soviet Politics and Business, Alena V. Ledeneva Book Review by Robert Legvold. November 7, 2014. Accessed: November 07.11.2014.
Businessweek (2001). We're Sure the Channel Is Under State Control, 26 April 2001. Dyomkin, Denis - Busvine, Douglas. Kremlin extends media grip through Gazprom deal, Reuters, 26 November 2013.
Freeland, Chrystia (2000). Sale of the Century: Russia’s Wild Ride from Communism to Capitalism, Crown Business.
Gel’man, Vladimir (Nov. 2004). The Unrule of Law in the Making: Politics of Informal Institution Building in Russia, Europe-Asia Studies, 56(7), 1021-1040.
Heywood, Andrew (2013). Politics, 4th ed.,: Palgrave Macmillan, New York.
Kagarlitsky, Boris (Dec. 7, 2011). Managed Democracy Fails in a Crisis, The Moscow Times, Accessed : 01.11.2014.
Lally, Kathy (Dec. 11, 2011). Russians Scoff at Medvedev Election Inquiry, The Washington Post.
Ledeneva, Alena (2001). Unwritten Rules: How Russia Really Works, Centre for European Reform, Accessed: 07.11.2011.
Levitsky, Steven – Way, Lucan A. (2010). Competitive Authoritarianism: Hybrid Regimes After the Cold War, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Moses, Joel C. (April 2004), Book Review: Making and Breaking Democratic Transitions: The Comparative Politics of Russia’s Regions by Vladimir Gel’man, Russian Review, 63(2).
McFaul, Michael (2001). Russia’s Unfinished Revolution: Political Change from Gorbachev to Putin, Cornell University Press, New York.
Marquardt, Alexander (2009). Opposition Leader Killed in Russia’s Republic of Ingushetia Abcnews, Moscow, October 26, 2009.
Kırklareli Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi (ISSN: 2146-3417)
Yıl: 2014 – Cilt: 3 – Sayı: 1
Kotz, David M. – Weir, Fred (2012). Gorbaçov’dan Putin’e Rusya’nın Yolu: Sovyet Sisteminin Çöküşü ve Yeni Rusya, Kalkedon Yayınları, Istanbul.
Petrov, Nikolay and McFaul, Michael (2005). The Essence of Putin’s Managed Democracy, The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, October 18, 2005.
Radnitz, Scott (2011). Informal Politics and the State, Comparative Politics (April 2011), 351-371.
Rainey, Bernadette - Wicks, Elizabeth – Ovey, Clare (2014). The European Convention on Human Rights, 6th ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Sakwa, Richard (2008). Russian Politics and Society, 4th ed., Routledge, New York.
Satter, David (2003). Darkness at Dawn: The Rise of the Russian Criminal State Yale University Press.

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