You are here

Training as a factor of business excellence

Journal Name:

Publication Year:

Abstract (2. Language): 
Purpose: Adopting a specific strategy is sometimes the key to the survival of companies. Given the increasing interest on the part of the companies to have the best strategy that allows them to differentiate themselves from their competitors, the aim of this empirical work is to study the relationship that exists between training and business results. Design/methodology/approach: The empirical set of this paper is comprised by a survey applied to 381 large organizations in Catalonia region during the time frame of 2006-2007. At one hand, the survey allowed identifying the independent (training) variables, and at other, the dependent variables (economical) were obtained from Sabi Data Base and from the “Fomento de la Producción” Magazine. Findings: According to data obtained, it is possible to consider training as an additional strategic tool that should be used by companies to improve their performance outcomes. Originality/value: Taking into account that the literature review only demonstrates studies linking training and results such as total shareholder return, productivity, higher quality of customer services, reduced staff turnover, organizational performance, growth on the staff wages, etc., therefore, the key value of the paper rely at one hand on providing an analysis of the impact of training on billing and at other, on the use of the Model of Industrial Economy as part of the theoretical framework for the causal model development.



ALLIGER, G.; TANNENBAUM, S.; BENNETT Jr., W.; TRAVER, H.; SHOTLAND, A. (1997). A meta-analysis of the relations among training criteria. Personnel Psychology, 50: 341-358.
ARAGON-SANCHEZ, A.; BARBA-ARAGON, I.; SANZ-VALLE, R. (2003). Effects of training on business results. International Journal of Human Management, 14(6): 956-980.
ARAGON-SANCHEZ, A.; ESTEBAN-LLORET, N. (2010). La formación en la empresa española: ¿sólo se busca mejorar los resultados organizacionales?. Universia Business Review, 26: 34-56.
BALLOT, G.; TAYMAZ, E. (1997). The dynamics of firms in a micro-to-macro model: The role of training, learning and innovation. Journal of evolutionary economics, 7(4): 435-457.
BARCLAY, D.; HIGGINS, C.; THOMPSON, R. (1995). The Partial Least Squares (PLS) Approach to Causal Modelling: Personal Computer Adoption and Use as an Illustration. Technology Studies, Special Issue on Research Methodology, 2(2): 285-309.
BARRETT, A.; O´CONNELL, P. (2001). Does training generally work? The returns to in-company training. Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 54(3): 647-663.
BARRON, J.; BERGER, M.; BLACK, D. (1997). How Well do we Measure Training? Journal of Labor Economics, 15(3): 507-528.
BARTEL, A. (2000). Measuring the employers return on investments in training: evidence from the literature. Industrial Relations, 39(3): 502-524.
BASSI, L.; LUDGWING, J.; MCMURRER, D.; VAN MURER, M. (2002). Profiting from Learning : firm-level effects of training investments and market implications. Singapore Management Review, 24(3): 61-76.
BATTU, H.; BELFIELD, C.; SLOANE, P. (2004). Human capital spillovers in the workplace: evidence for the service sector in Britain. International Journal of Manpower, 25(1): 123-138.
Intangible Capital -
- 300 -
BECKER, G. (1983). El capital humano: un análisis teórico y empírico referido fundamentalmente a la educación. Madrid: Alianza Editorial.
BIRDI, K.; CLEGG, C.; PATTERSON, M.; ROBINSON, A.; STRIDE, C.; WALL, T.; WOOD, S. (2008). The impact of human resource and operational practices on company productivity: a longitudinal study. Personnel Psychology, 61: 467-501.
BISHOP, J. (1988). Job performance, turnover, and wage growth. Journal of Labor Economics, 8(3): 363-386.
BLACK, S.; LYNCH, L. (1996). Human-capital investments and productivity. American Economics Review, 86(2): 263-267.
CABRAL, L. (1997). Economía Industrial. Madrid: McGraw-Hill.
CARMINES, E.; ZELLER, R. (1979). Reliability and Validity Assessment, Sage University Paper Series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences. N. 07-017. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
CHIN, W. (1998b). The Partial Least Squares Approach to Structural Equation Modeling, en G.A. Marcoulides [ed.]: Modern Methods for Business Research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher: 295-336.
CHIN, W. (2004). PLS-Graph, Versión 3.00, University of Houston, Texas, USA.
CHU, Y. (2005). Training determinants and productivity impact of training in China: A case of Shanghai. Economics of Education Review, 24: 275-295.
COLLINS, C.; CLARK, K. (2003). Strategic human resource practices, top management team social networks, and firm performance: The role of human resource practices in creating organizational competitive advantage. Academy of Management Journal, 46(6): 740-751.
COOKE, F. (2001). Human Resource Strategy to improve organizational performance: a route for firms in Britain?. International Journal of Management Reviews, 3(4): 321-339.
DAVENPORT, T.; DELONG, D.; BREES, M. (1998). Successful knowledge management projects. Sloan Management Review, 39(2): 43-57.
Intangible Capital -
- 301 -
DENISON, E. (1979). Explanations of Declining Productivity Growth. Department of Commerce, Survey of Current Business, Part II.
DICKSON, W.; ROETHLISBERGER, F. (1986). Administración y el trabajador. The Academy of Management Review, 11(2): 459-464.
DIEZ MEDRANO, J. (1992). Métodos de análisis causal. Cuadernos Metodológicos, 3. Madrid: CIS.
DRUCKER, P. (1993). La sociedad poscapitalista. Barcelona: Apóstrofe.
DRUCKER, P. (1999). Management Challenges for the 21st Centur, (Desafíos de management para el siglo XXI), Harper Collins.
EGUIGUREN-HUERTA, M. (2000). Aspectos metodológicos de la formación en la empresa: una metodología para el control de gestión de la función de formación en la empresa en Cataluña. Tesis doctoral, Barcelona.
EGUIGUREN-HUERTA, M. (2002). Costes y beneficios de la formación en las organizaciones. Gestión de la formación en las organizaciones. Barcelona: Ariel.
EGUIGUREN-HUERTA, M.; LLINAS-AUDET, X.; PONS-PEREGORT, O. (2006). In-Company training in Catalonia: organizational structure, funding, evaluation and economic impact. International Journal of Training and Development, 10(2): 140-163.
EGUIGUREN-HUERTA, M.; LLINAS-AUDET, X.; PARELLADA-SABATA, M. (2008). International briefing 20: training and development in Andorra. International Journal of Training and Development, 12(3): 206-224.
ESCARDIBUL, J.; LLINÁS-AUDET, X. (2010). International briefing 22: training and development in Spain. International Journal of Training and Development, 14(1): 65-76.
FOMENTO DE LA PRODUCCIÓN 30.000. 2007 y 2008. Editado por Fomento de la Producción S.L.
FORNELL, C.; LARCKER, D. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18: 39-50.
Intangible Capital -
- 302 -
GEISSER, S. (1975). The Predictive Sample Reuse Method with Applications. Journal of the American Statistical Association: 70: 320-328.
HAIR, J.; ANDERSON, R.; TATHAM, R.; BLACK, W. (2000). Análisis Multivariante. 5ª Edición (en español). Prentice Hall.
HAMEL, G.; PRAHALAD, C. (1996). Compitiendo por el futuro. España: Ariel.
HANDY, C. (1997). Preparando el futuro. Barcelona: Gestión 2000.
HOLZER, H.; BLOCK, R.; CHEATHAM, M.; KNOTT, J. (1993). Are training subsies for firms effective? The Michigan experience. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 46(4): 625-636.
HOPE, G.; HOPE, T. (1998). Competir en la tercera ola: Los diez temas claves de la dirección en la era de la información. Madrid: Gestión 2000.
HUSELID, M. (1995). The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, productivity and corporate financial performance. Academy of Management Journal, 38(3): 635-672.
ICHINIOWSKI, C.; SHAW, K.; PENNUSHI, G. (1997). The effects of human resource management practices on productivity: a study of steel finishing lines. The American Economic Review, 87(3): 291-313.
JOHANNESSEN, J.; OLSEN, B. (2003). Knowledge management and sustainable competitive advantages: The Impact of dynamic contextual training. International Journal of Information Management, 23(4): 277-289.
KIRKPATRICK, D. (2003). Evaluación de acciones formativas: los cuatro niveles. Barcelona: Epise.
KRAIGER, K. (2003). Perspectives on training and development. Industrial and organizational psychology, 171-192.
KRUEGER, A.; ROUSE, C. (1998). The impact of Workplace Education on Earnings Turnover, and Job Performance. Journal of Labor Economics, 16(1): 61-94.
LANDETA, J.; BARRUTIA, J.; HOYOS, J. (2009). Management turnover expectations: a variable to explain company readiness to engage in continuous
Intangible Capital -
- 303 -
management training. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20: 164-185.
LUPTON, R.; WEISS, J.; PETERSON, R. (1999). Sales Training Evaluation Model (STEM): A conceptual framework. Industrial Marketing Management, 28: 73-86.
LUQUE MARTÍNEZ, T. (2000). Técnicas de análisis de datos en investigación de mercados. Madrid: Pirámide.
LYNCH, L. (1998). Analyzing training and productivity. Monthly Labor Review, 121(7): 53-54.
MINCER, J. (1958). Investment in Human Capital and Personal Income Distribution. The Journal of Political Economy, 66: 281.
MOLINA, J.; ORTEGA, R. (2003). Effects of employee on the performance of North-American firms. Applied Economics Letters, 10: 549-552.
MORROW, C.; JARRETT, Q.; RUPINSKI, M. (1997). An investigation of the effect and economic utility of corporate-wide training. Personnel Psycology, 50(1): 91-119.
MYERS, M.; GRIFFITH, D.; DAUGHERTY, P.; LUSCH, R. (2004). Maximizing The Human Capital Ecuation in Logistics: Education, Experience and Skills. Journal of Business Logistics, 25(1): 211-232.
NAM-HONG, Y.; SOUNG-HIE, K.; HEE-WOONG, K.; KEE-YOUNG, K. (2004). Knowledge based decision making on higher level strategic concerns: system dynamics approach. Expert Systems with Applications, 27: 143-158.
OLAVARRIETA, S.; FRIEDMANN, R. (1999). Market – oriented culture, knowledge –related resources, reputational assets and superior performance: a conceptual framework. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 7(4): 215-228.
OTTERSTEN KAZAMAKI, E.; LINDH MELLANDER, T. (1999). Evaluating firm training, effects on performance and labour demand. Applied Economics Letters, 6: 431-437.
Intangible Capital -
- 304 -
PAPALEXANDRIS, N.; NIKANDROU, I. (2000). Benchmarking employee skills: results from best practice firms in Greece. Journal of European Industrial Training, 24(7): 391-402.
PARDO, A.; RUIZ, M. (2002). SPSS 11. Guía para el análisis de datos. Madrid: McGraw-Hill.
PEÑA, D. (2002). Análisis de datos multivariantes. Madrid: McGraw-Hill.
PINEDA, P. (2002). Evaluación de la formación en las organizaciones. Gestión de la formación en las organizaciones. Barcelona: Ariel.
PONS-PEREGORT, O. (2000). La Formació a les Organitzacions: una perspectiva des del disseny organizatiu de Mintzberg, Tesis doctoral.
PONS-PEREGORT, O. (2000). La Función de formación y la gestión económica de la formación en la empresa: estudio en la gran empresa catalana. Congreso AEDIPE. Construyendo un futuro más humano. La persona en la sociedad y en la empresa.
REYES, C. (2005). Analysis of the relation between knowledge engineering and knowledge management based on the Nonake and Takeuchi models. Intangible Capital 3: 1-15.
SABI, (2006-2007). Sistema de análisis de Balances Ibéricos.
SALAZAR, J. (2004). Algunas reflexiones sobre la gestión del conocimiento en las empresas. Intangible Capital, 2: 1-6.
SCHONEWILLE, M. (2001). Does training generally work? Explaining labour productivity effects from schooling and training. International Journal of Manpower, 22: 158-172.
SCHULTZ, T. (1961). Investment in human capital. American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings, 51: 1-17.
SCHUMPETER, J. (1982). Historia del Análisis Económico. Barcelona: Ariel.
STONE, M. (1974). Cross-validatory choice and assessment of statistical predictions. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 36(2): 111-147.
TAN, H.; BATRA, G. (1995). Enterprise Training in Developing Countries. PSD Occasional Paper, 9, Washington, D.C. Banco Mundial.
Intangible Capital -
- 305 -
TENNANT, C.; BOONKRONG, M.; ROBERTS, P. (2002). The design of a training programme measurement model. Journal of European Industrial Training, 26(5): 230-240.
WERTS, C.; LINN, R; JÖRESKOG, K. (1974). Interclass Reliability Estimates: Testing Structural Assumptions. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 34: 25-33.

Thank you for copying data from