You are here

Education, the Economy, and Post-materialist Values in Russia: Evidence from the Chechnya Conflict*

Journal Name:

Publication Year:

Abstract (2. Language): 
A large number of survey-based studies have led to a widely held opinion about value-shifts in the former Soviet Union. More specifically, scholars have argued for surprising evidence of “postmaterialist” values driven by either economic security or education, and that these values have salient implications for democratic progress throughout the region. The rise of “new Russians,” e.g. urban, well-educated, and well-off supporters of democratic values has been posited since the early 1990s. This paper offers a cautionary alternative to this view, arguing that inconsistencies might exist on citizen attitudes on critical issues. Specifically we posit that some of the factors driving postmaterialist values might run counter to earlier widely held expectations, and find that Russian attitudes toward the conduct of the Chechnya conflict raise new questions about the strength of the postmaterialist argument in this part of the world.



Anderson, C. (2000). Economic voting and political context: A comparative perspective.
Electoral Studies. 19, 151-70.
Bahry, D. (1999). Comrades into citizens? Russian political culture and public support for
the transition. Slavic Review. 58, 841-53.
Bahry, D., Kosolapov, M., Kozyreva,, & Wilson, R.K. (2005). Ethnicity and trust: Evidence
from Russia. American Political Science Review. 99(4), 521-532.
Bobo, L., & Licari, F.C. (1989). Education and political tolerance: Testing the effects of cognitive
sophistication and target group affect. Public Opinion Quarterly, 53, 285-308.
Conover, & Sapiro V., (1993). Gender, feminist consciousness, and war. America Journal
of Political Science, 37, 1079-1099.
Dahl, R. (1971). Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Duch, R, & Taylor. M. (1993). Postmaterialism and the economic condition. American
Journal of Political Science, 37(3), 747-779.
Erikson, R. S. (1989). Economic conditions and the presidential vote. American Political
Science Review, 83(2), 567-573.
Fair, R. (1978). The effects of economic events on votes for the president. The Review of
Economics and Statistics, 60(2), 159-173.
Feldman, S. (1982) Economic self-interest and political behavior. American Journal of
Political Science, 26(3), 446-466.
Flanagan, S. (1982). Changing values in advanced industrial societies. Comparative
Political Studies. 14, 403-44.
Freire, M. R. (2005, April). Politics in Russia: (Un)democratic Practices and the Case of
Chechnya. Paper presented at annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science
Association, Chicago, IL.
Gibson, J. (2001). Social networks, civil society, and the prospects for consolidating
Russia’s democratic transition. American Journal of Political Science. 45(1), 51-68.
Gibson, J. (1996a). A mile wide but an inch deep? The structure of democratic com
mitments in the former USSR. American Journal of Political Science. 40(2), 396-420.
Gibson, J. (1996b). Political and economic markets: changes in the connections between
attitudes toward political democracy and a market economy within the mass culture
of Russia and Ukraine. The Journal of Politics. 58(4), 954-984.
Gibson, J., & Duch. R., (1994). Postmaterialism and the emerging Soviet democracy.
Political Research Quarterly. 1:5-39.
Renat Shaykhutdinov, Andrew Konitzer, Alexander Pacek, and Vladimir Zvonovksii
Gibson, J., Duch, R., & Tedin, K. (1992). Democratic values and the transformation of the
Soviet Union. The Journal of Politics. 54, 329-71.
“The warlord and the spook,” (2007, May 31) Economist.
Hibbing, J.R., & Alford, J.R. (1981). The electoral impact of economic conditions: Who is
held responsible? American Journal of Political Science, 25(3) 423-439.
Inglehart, R. (1971). The silent revolution in Europe: Intergenerational change in postindustrial
societies. American Political Science Review. 65, 991-1017.
Inglehart, R. (1977). The Silent Revolution. Changing Values and Political Styles among
Western Publics. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
Inglehart, R. (1979). “Value Priorities and Socioeconomic Change.” In S. Barnes & M.
Kaase, (Eds.), Political Action: Mass Participation in Five Western Democracies (305-
342). London: Sage.
Inglehart, R. (1990). Culture Shift in Advanced Industrial Societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton
University Press.
Inglehart, R. (1997). Modernization and Postmodernization: Cultural, Economic, and Political
Change in 43 Societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Inglehart, R., & Siemienska, R., (1990, September). A long-term trend toward
democratization? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political
Science Association.
Jack, A. (2006). Inside Putin’s Russia: Can There Be Reform Without Democracy? Oxford, UK:
Oxford University Press.
Jelen, T., Thomas, S., & Wilcox, C., (1994). The gender gap in comparative perspec tive.
European Journal ofPolitica1 Research, 25, 171-1 86.
Kinder, D. & Kiewiet, D.R. (1981) Sociotropic politics: The American case. British Journal of
Political Science, 11(2), 129-161.
Klein, E. (1984). Gender Politics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Kramer, G. (1971). Short-term fluctuations in U.S. voting behavior, 1896-1964. American
Political Science Review, 65(1), 131-143.
Kymlicka, W. (2001). Politics in the Vernacular: Nationalism, Multiculturalism and Citizenshi
Oxford University Press.
Lunch, W. L. and Sperlich, W., (1979). American public opinion and the war in Vietnam.
The Western Political Quarterly, 32(1), 21-44.
Miller, A., Hesli, V., & Reisinger, W., (1995). Comparing citizen and elite belief systems in
post-Soviet Russia and Ukraine. The Public Opinion Quarterly. 59(1), 1-40.
European Journal of Economic and Political Studies
Miller, A., Hesli, V., & Reisinger, W., (1997). Conceptions of democracy among mass and
elite in post-Soviet societies. British Journal of Political Science, 27(2), 157-190.
Mueller, J., (1973). War, Presidents, and Public Opinion. New York: Wiley.
Oddbjørn K. (1990), Materialist and postmaterialist values and social structure in the
Nordic countries: A comparative study. Comparative Politics, 23(1), 85-104.
Osborn, A. (2005, February 9). Putin cronies exposed in new list of Russia’s rich, The
Reisinger, W., Melville, A., Miller, A., & Hesli, V., (1996). Mass and elite political out looks in post-
Soviet Russia: How congruent? Political Research Quarterly, 49(1), 77-101.
Reisinger, W., Miller, A., Hesli, V., & Maher, K., (1994). Political values in Russia, Ukraine,
and Lithuania: Sources and implications for democracy. British Journal of Political
Science, 24, 183-223.
Shapiro, R., & Mahajan, H., (1986). Gender differences in policy preferences: A summary of
trends from the 1960s to the 1980s. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 50(1), 42-61.
Sullivan J. L., J. Piereson, G. E. Marcus. 1979. An alternative conceptualization of political
tolerance: Illusory increases 1950s-1970s." American Political Science Review 73(3):
Tufte, E. (1975). Determinants of the outcomes of midterm congressional elections.
American Political Science Review, 69(3), 812-826.
Tufte, E (1978). Political Control of the Economy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Weil, F. (1985). The variable effects of education on liberal attitudes: A comparativehistorical
analysis of anti-semitism using public opinion survey data. American
Sociological Review, 50, 458-74.
Weatherford, S. (1983). Economic conditions and electoral outcomes: Class differences in
political responses to recession. American Journal of Political Science, 22(4), 917-938.
Zakon, RF (1998). o voinskoi obiazannosti i voennoi sluzhbe.
Zaller, John. 1991. Information, values, and opinions. American Political Science Review 85:
Zimmerman, W. (2002). The Russian People and Foreign Policy: Russian Elite and Mass
Perspectives, 1993-2000. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University

Thank you for copying data from