You are here

Promoting Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation among Chemistry Students using Computer-Assisted Instruction

Journal Name:

Publication Year:

Abstract (2. Language): 
The role of computer-assisted instruction in promoting intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among Nigerian secondary school chemistry students was investigated in this study. The study employed two modes of computer-assisted instruction (computer simulation instruction and computer tutorial instructional packages) and two levels of gender (male and female) using pretest-posttest experimental group design. Ninety (45 males and 45 females) senior secondary one (SS1) students from three secondary schools in Minna, Nigeria, made up the sample. The schools were purposively sampled and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The Experimental Group I was taught two selected concepts of chemistry using computer simulation instructional package (CSIP), Experimental Group II was exposed to computer tutorial Instructional package (CTIP) while conventional teaching method (CTM) was used for the Control Group. Validated Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT) and Chemistry Motivation Questionnaire (CMQ) with reliability coefficient of 0.89 and 0.94 respectively were used for data collection. Classroom observations as well as interview schedules were also conducted. Data from CAT and CTM were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and Scheffe's post-hoc test, while the data from the classroom observations and interview schedules were thematically analyzed. The outcome of this study revealed that students taught with CSIP performed better than those in CTIP and CTM groups. The CSIP and CTIP were found also to be gender friendly. Moreover, students taught with CSIP had higher intrinsic and extrinsic motivation than their counterparts in CTIP and CTM respectively. Based on the findings, it was recommended that chemistry teachers should employ computer simulation for improving their students' performance and motivation in the subject.



Achuonye, K. A. (2011). Using computer in science class: The interactive effect of gender. Journal of African Studies and Development, 3(7), 131-134.
Adegoke, B. A. (2011). Effect of multimedia instruction on senior secondary school students' achievement in Physics. European Journal of Educational Studies, 3(3), 537-541.
Adesoji, F. A. & Babatunde, A. G. (2005). Expressive teaching behaviour: Bridging the gender gulf in secondary school chemistry achievement. International Journal of African & African American Studies, 4(1), 54-61.
Akpan, J. P. & Andre, T. (2000). Using a computer simulation before dissection to help students
learn anatomy. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 19(3), 297-313.
Akram, M., Athar, H. M., & Ali, M. (2011). The influence of computer assisted instruction (CAI) in chemistry on the students' achievement at higher secondary level. Journal of Social Sciences and Education, 1(4), 426-435.
Anagbogu, M. A. & Ezeliora, B. (2007). Sex differences and scientific performance. Women Journal of Science and Technology, 4(1), 10-20.
Arwood, L. (2004). Teaching cell biology to non-science majors through forensics, or how to design a killer course. Cell Biology Education, 3(2), 131-138.
Badmus, A. M. (2007). Effect of practical demonstration method (PDM) and computer tutorial mode (CTM) on students' achievement and attitudes in some selected skills in technical education (Unpublished master's thesis). University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qual Res Psychol, 3(2),77-101.
Britner, S. L. & Pajares, P. (2006). Sources of science self-efficacy beliefs of middle school students. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 43(5), 485-499.
Burns, C. & Myhill, D. (2004). Interactive or inactive? A consideration of the nature of interaction in whole class teaching. Cambridge Journal of Education, 34(1), 35-49.
Cavallo, A. M. L., Potter, W. H., & Rozman, M. (2004). Gender differences in learning constructs, shifts in learning constructs, and their relationship to course achievement in a structured
inquiry, yearlong college physics course for life science majors. School Science and Mathematics, 104(6), 288-300.
Covington, M. V. (2000). Goal theory, motivation and school achievement: An integrative review. Annual Review of Psychology, 51(2), 171-200.
Doering, A. & Veletsianos, G. (2009). Teaching with Instructional Software. In M. D. Roblyer & A. Doering (Eds.), Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching (pp.73-108). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
. A. & Efe, R. (2011). Evaluating the effect of computer simulations on secondary biology
instruction: An application of Bloom's taxonomy. Scientific Research and Essays, 6(10), 2137¬2146.
Egunjobi, A. O. (2004). The relative effectiveness of computer-assisted instructional modes on students learning outcomes in geography (Unpublished doctoral thesis). University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
Emeke, E. A. & Adegoke, B. A. (2001). The interaction effect of test response mode, students'
numerical ability and gender on cognitive achievement in senior secondary school physics. Retrieved on 20 August 2013 from
Fagbemi, P. O., Gambari, A. I., Oyedum, N. A., & Gbodi, E. B. (2011). Effects of computer-assisted instructional package on social studies achievement among senior primary school pupils in Niger State, Nigeria. Journal of Science, Technology, Mathematics and Education, 7(2), 204 -
Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN) (2009). National policy on education. Abuja: NERDC.
Gambari, A. I. (2004). Effects of computer-assisted instruction package on the performance of senior secondary students in physics in Minna (Unpublished master's thesis). Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.
Gambari, A. I., Falode, O. C., Fagbemi, P. O., & Idris, B. (2013). Efficacy of virtual laboratory
strategy on the achievement of secondary school students in Nigeria. Research in Curriculum
Studies (RICs), 9(1), 9-20.
Gambari, A. I., Yaki, A. A., Gana, E. S., & Ughovwa, Q. E. (2014). Improving secondary school students' achievement and retention in biology through video-based multimedia instruction. InSight: A Journal of Scholarly Teaching, 9, 78-91.
Garcia, T. (1993). Women and minorities in science: Motivational and cognitive correlates of
achievement. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Atlanta, GA.
Glynn, S. M. & Koballa, T. R. (2006). Motivation to learn in college science. In J.J. Mintzes & W. H. Leonard (Eds.), Handbook of college science teaching (pp. 25-32). Arlington,VA: National Science Teachers Association Press.
Glynn, S. M., Taasoobshirazi, G., & Brickman, P. (2007). Non-science majors learning science: A
theoretical model of motivation. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 44(8), 1088-1107.
Glynn, S. M., Taasoobshirazi, G., & Brickman, P. (2009). Science motivation questionnaire:
Construct validation with non-science majors. Journal of Research in Science Teaching,
46(2), 127-146.
James, T. (2001). Effect of combining reflective writing with concept mapping and lecture method on pre-service N. C. E teacher's attitude and achievement in biology (Unpublished doctoral thesis). Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
Jegede, S. A. (2007). Student's anxiety towards the learning of chemistry in some Nigerian secondary schools. Educational Research and Review, 2(7), 193-197.
Kara, Y. & Yesilyurt, S. (2007). Assessing the effects of tutorial and edutainment software programs on students' achievements, misconceptions and attitudes towards biology. Asia-Pacific Forum on Learning and Teaching, 8(2), 1-22.
Kaufman, J., Agars, M., Lopez, M., & Wagner, M. (2008). Examining creativity in Turkey high ability studies. Journal of California State University, 18(2), 235-246.
Lin, Y. G., McKeachie, W. J., & Kim, Y. C. (2002). College student intrinsic and/or extrinsic motivation and learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 13(1), 251-258.
Michael, K. Y. (2001). The effect of a computer simulation activity versus a hands-on activity on product creativity in technology education. Journal of Technology Education, 13 (1), 31-43.
Moos, D. C. (2010). Nonlinear technology: Changing the conception of extrinsic motivation? Computers & Education, 55(4), 1640-1650.
Olorukooba, S. B. (2007). Science, technology and mathematics (STM) education is for all students: Promoting effective teaching of STM subjects in our schools through teacher preparation. Proceedings of the 50th Anniversary Conference of Science Teachers Association of Nigeria.
Rieber, L. P. (1990). Using computer animated graphics with science instruction with children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 135-140.
Ryan, R. M. & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 54-67.
Saminathan, B. (2012). Effect of computer based instructional strategies in learning chemistry at higher secondary level. International Conference on Software and Computer Applications (ICSCA 2012). IPCSIT Vol. 41. Singapore: IACSIT Press.
Trey, L. & Khan, S. (2008). How science students can learn about unobservable phenomena using computer based analogies. Computers & Education, 51(2), 519-529.
Tuysuz, C. (2010). The effect of the virtual laboratory on students' achievement and attitude in chemistry. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 2(1), 37-53.
WAEC (2012, May/June). Chief examiner's report. Lagos: Research and Statistics Unit, WAEC.
Walker, C. O., Greene, B. A., & Mansell, R. A. (2006). Identification with academics, intrinsic /
extrinsic motivation, and self-efficacy as predictors of cognitive engagement. Learning and Individual Differences, 16(1), 1-12.
Wasagu, M. A. & Muhammad, R. (2007). Female education in science, technology and
mathematics and sustainable development in the new millennium. 50th Annual Conference Proceeding of STAN (pp.86-88).
Watson, M., McSorley, M., Foxcroft, C. & Watson, A. (2004). Exploring the motivation and learning strategies of first year university learners. Tertiary Education and Management, 10(3), 193 -
West African Examination Council (WAEC) (2003-2012). Examiners report in science subjects.
Lagos: WAEC.
Winberg, T. M. & Headman, L. (2007). Student attitudes toward learning, level of pre-knowledge and instruction type in a computer - simulation: Effects on flow experiences and perceived learning outcomes. Springer Sci. Bus. Media BV., 36, 269-287.
Yaakub, M. & Finch, C. (2001). Effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction in technical
education: A meta- analysis. Occupational Education Forum/Workforce Education Forum
(OEF/WEF), 28(2), 5-19.
Yu, S. L. (1999). Women's motivation and strategy use in college science classes. Journal of Staff, Program, & Organization Development, 16(1), 93-101.
Yusuf, M. O.
Afolabi, A. O. (2010). Effects of computer assisted instruction (CAI) on secondary school students' performance in biology. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 9(1), 62-69.
Zeegers, P. (2001). Approaches to learning in science: A longitudinal study. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 71(1), 115-132.

Thank you for copying data from