Buradasınız

İLKOKUL ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN FARKLILIKLARA İLİŞKİN ALGILARININ ÇİZDİKLERİ RESİMLER ARACILIĞIYLA İNCELENMESİ

Share
INVESTIGATING PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS' PERCEPTIONS ABOUT DIFFERENCES THROUGH THEIR DRAWINGS

Journal Name:

Volume:

Publication Year:

Number:

Page Number-First: 
529
Page Number-Last: 
544

Publication Language:

Abstract (Original Language): 
Bu çalışmanın amacı ilkokul öğrencilerinin farklılıklara ilişkin algılarını çizdikleri resimler aracılığıyla incelemektir. Bu amaçla gerçekleştirilen çalışma 2013-2014 akademik yılı bahar döneminde yürütülmüştür. Çalışmaya 27 dördüncü sınıf, 31 üçüncü sınıf, 26 ikinci sınıf, 23 birinci sınıf olmak üzere toplam 107 ilkokul öğrencisi katılmıştır. Araştırma verileri çiz ve anlat tekniğinde betimleyici metotla hazırlanmıştır. Çalışma süresince öğrencilerden bireyler arasındaki farklılıklara ilişkin resim çizmeleri ve çizdikleri resimleri açıklamaları istenmiştir. Öğrencilerin çizdikleri resimler araştırma sorularından yola çıkarak incelendiğinde farklılıklara ilişkin 32 farklı kategori bulunmuştur. Kategorilerin benzer ve farklı yönlerine göre 8 tema belirlenmiştir. Bunlar; Dış Görünüşe İlişkin Farklılıklar, Irk ve Etnik Köken İle İlgili Farklılıklar, Kültürel ve Dini Farklılıklar, Engellilik Durumu, Gelir Durumu, İlgi ve Yeteneklerle İlgili Farklılıklar, Ebeveyn Durumu, Duygusal Durum. Buna göre öğrenciler resimlerinde en çok dış görünüşe ilişkin farklılıklara yer vermişlerdir. Bunun yanı sıra, öğrencilerin farklılıklara ilişkin olumlu ve olumsuz tutumu yansıtan kategorilere yer verdikleri görülmüştür. Bunlar; kelebek, güneş, bulut, çiçek, kuş, iki yana açılan kollar, gökkuşağı, balon, ağaç, oyun parkı, sıcak renk kullanma, yağmur, soğuk renk kullanma. Araştırma sonuçları öğrenci resimlerinde en çok farklılıklara ilişkin olumlu tutumu yansıtan kategorilerin yer aldığını göstermektedir. Bununla birlikte bazı öğrencilerin resimlerinde farklılıklara ilişkin olumsuz tutumu yansıtan kategorilere de rastlanmıştır. Araştırma sonuçlarının yapılacak yeni çalışmalara kaynaklık edeceği düşünülmektedir.
Abstract (2. Language): 
Today world has become more diverse and differences on the global scale have started to come into the individuals’ daily life day by day. In other words, people have chance to attain more global individual differences with developing information and communication technology. However, concept of difference is not evaluated just as a feature of humanity and social dimension of it has come into prominence mostly by some of views. In this context individual differences are evaluated as actors of separatist actions, prejudice, bias and even genocide. In other words, differences of individual have started to be danger for own core existence. The perception and attributed meaning towards differences have important role at this point. Meanwhile differences are seen as a source of diversity and breaking point on socialization and world peace. From this point of view, perceptions about differences have to be dwelled on as a predictor factor of attitudes towards differences. In this point of view, it could be said that families, peers and media have a great effect to form the children’s perceptions regarding differences. When it is considered that children has started to realize differences in early ages, researching perceptions of children about differences has importance, is thought. In other words, it is thought that the learning experiences in the first years of life affect the individual’s reaction’s form against to society and social experiences, communication with other people. The negative examples in children’s environment can cause children to develop a negative attitudes and stereotypes regarding differences. This negative period starts with stereotypes and gives place to the attitudes of biases and discriminations in time. From this point of view, examining perceptions of students towards differences has been considered important. Therefore it was planned to determine the children’s perceptions regarding differences by drawings because drawings let children reflect feelings, inner worlds and personality and it has an intimate language. In this context, differences that primary school students aware and attitudes reflected in drawings were examined. The research was carried through phenology to reveal individual perceptions and perspectives about a certain phenomenon that is one of the qualitative research methods. The study was carried out during the spring semester of 2013-2014 academic year. Research sample was selected through maximum variation sampling to find common phenomenon between varied situations and to find out different dimensions of the problem according to this variation. A total of 107 primary school students, including 27 fourth grade, 31 third grade, 26 second grade, 23 first grade participated in the study. The study has been conducted by descriptive method and the data of the study have been collected by draw-and-explain task. During the data collection students were asked to draw a picture of differences between people and explain their drawings. The content analysis was used in the analysis of data is one of the qualitative analysis methods. While analyzing the drawings interview was made with children about own drawings to overcome the problem is to interpret pictures with an adult’s perspective. 32 different categories have been found when drawings have examined on the basis of research questions. These are “fat, thin, tall, short, curly haired, straight haired, spectacled, long haired, short haired, blond haired, dark haired, bald, colored eyed, African, different skin colored, Asian, difference of mother tongue, local dress, difference of food and beverage, difference of religion, mosque, wearing a head scarf, blind, orthopedically handicapped, difference of used means of transport, difference of home style, difference of choice of dress, talent, hobby, phobia, parentless, state of emotion”. When examined similarities and differences of categories, 8 different themes have been found. These are appearance differences, race and ethnicity differences, cultural and religious differences, disability status, income status, interest and ability differences, parental status, state of emotion. Research results show that students have used mostly appearance differences in drawings. It is possible to explain that finding with the cognitive developmental period that students have been. Particularly, the research finding about 1th grade students express mostly appearance differences can be evaluated in the context of theory of Piaget. Another research finding is about that the students are aware of race and ethnicity differences secondly. It is observed that categories about race and ethnicity differences are expressed respectively by 4th, 3th, 2th, 1th grade students. English language course taken in 4th grade can be evaluated as an factor to explain existence of the finding in 4th grade students mostly because of role of the course in building awareness towards existence of different races and mother tongues. Research findings show that students are also aware of orthopedically handicapped and visual handicapped people. Inclusion applied in education system and knowledge obtained via media tools can be evaluated as factors comprising of that finding. When analyzed the drawings it has found that students emphasize interest and ability differences, too. It can be evaluated as a result of developmental stage of leaving egocentrism with in concrete operational stage and start to look at the things from different angle and others’ point of view. In addition to this, students have used categories reflecting positive and negative attitudes towards differences,was found. These are butterfly, sun, cloud, flower, bird, swing arms, rainbow, balloon, tree, playpen, using bright colors, rain, using dark colors. Research results show that mostly categories reflecting positive attitudes towards differences have been used in drawings. However, some of students have used categories reflecting negative attitude towards differences. It is thought that research results are going to be considered as a resource for forward studies.

Keywords (Original Language):

DOI: 
http://dx.doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.7503

REFERENCES

References: 

UR, Zekerya (2010). “Ana Dili Öğretiminde Gösterge Biliminin Yeri: Ana Dili Ders Kitaplarindaki Sözel Metinlerle Görsel Metinleri Bütünselliğinin Analizi”, TURKISH STUDIES International Periodical For the Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic, ISSN: 1308-2140, Volume 5/4, Fall, 2010, www.turkishstudies.net, Doi Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.1713, p 174-200.
BODENHAUSEN, G. V. & HUGENBERG, K. (2009). Attention, Perception, Social Cognition J. F. Fritz Strack içinde, Social cognition: the basis of human Interaction, Taylor Francis Group, Newyork:1-21
BURKITT, E., BARRETT, M. & DAVIS A. (2003). Children's Colour Choices for Completing Drawings of Affectively Characterised Topics. Journal of Child Psychol Psychiatry. 44(3):445-55.
Investigating Primary School Students' Perceptions About Differences Through… 543
Turkish Studies
International Periodical For the Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic
Volume 10/3 Winter 2015
CAN, Yücel (2014). “Türk Ailesinde Aile İçi Şiddetin Kültürel Dinamikleri”, TURKISH STUDIES - International Periodical For The Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic (Prof. Dr. Ahmet Topaloğlu Armağanı), Volume 9/8 Summer 2014, www.turkishstudies.net, Doi Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.7137, p, 13-19.
EKMIŞOĞLU, M. (2007). Erken Çocukluk Döneminde Farklılıklara Saygı Kavramı Hakkında Öğretmen Görüşlerinin İncelenmesi ve Farklılıklara Saygı Ölçeği’nin Geçerlik ve Güvenirlik Çalışması (Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi), Çanakkale On sekiz Mart Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
FİLİZ, Y. & KAZIM , A. (2008).The Reflections of Children's Perception of Violence on Their Drawings. Çocuk ve Gençlik Ruh Sağlığı Dergisi. 15 (3), 149-155. Turkish.
HALL, N. S. (1999). Creative Resources for the Anti-Bias Classroom, United States of America: Delmar Publishers.
LEONARD, M. (2006). Children’s drawings as a methodological tool: Reflections on the eleven plus system in Northern Ireland. Irish Journal of Sociology, 15(2), 52-66.
MALCHIODI, C. A. (1998). Understanding Children's Drawings. Newyork: The Guilfud Press.
Paktuna Keskin, S. (2003). Çöp Çocuk.Boyut Yyaın Grubu: İstanbul.Turkish
Piaget, J. (2005). Çocuğun Gözüyle Dünya. Çev: Yerguz, İ. Dost Kitabevi Ankara.
PICKENS, J. (2005). Attitudes and perceptions, B.N. içinde Organizational Behavior in Health Care, Sudbury: MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers: 43-75
SAĞKAL, A. S., Türnüklü, A., Totan, T. (2012). Kişilerarası Barış Için Empati: Barış Eğitiminin Empati Becerilerine Etkileri. Kuram Ve Uygulamada Eğitim Bilimleri (Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 12 (2), 1447-1460.
SCHIRRMACHER, R. (2001). Art and Creative Development for Young Children (4th ed.). NewYork: Thomson Delmar.
TAHİROĞLU, Mustafa (2014), “Değerler Eğitimi Yöntemleriyle Desteklenen Bir Akıcı Okuma Ve Okuduğunu Anlama Çalışması”, Turkish Studies - International Periodical For The Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic (Prof. Dr. Ahmet Topaloğlu Armağanı), ISSN: 1308 – 2140, Volume 9/8,Summer 2014, www.turkishstudies.net, Doi Number :http://dx.doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.7377, p, 793-811
TAPAN, Ç. (2006). Barış Eğitimi Programının Öğrencilerin Çatışma Çözme Becerileri Üzerindeki Etkilerinin İncelenmesi. Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü. İzmir. Turkish
TAVŞANCIL, E. & Aslan, E. (2001). İçerik analizi ve uygulama örnekleri. Epsilon Yayınları: İstanbul.Turkish
TÜRKCAN, B. (2013). Çocuk Resimlerinin Analizinde Göstergebilimsel Bir Yaklaşım.Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Bilimleri, 585-607.
ÜNER, E. (2011). Okul Öncesi Eğitim Programındaki 36-72 Aylık Çocuklara Farklılıklara Saygı Eğitimi Kazandırmanın Öğretmen Görüşleri Doğrultusunda Değerlendirilmesi. Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Erciyes Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü. Kayseri.
VURAL, R. A ve GÖMLEKSIZ, M (2010). Biz ve Ötekiler: Sınıf Öğretmeni Adaylarının Ayrımcı Tutumları Üzerine Bir Araştırma, Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 38, 216-233.
WRIGHT, C. (1991). Early Years Anti-Racist Practice and Reseacrh. London: Early Years Trainers Anti-Racist Network.
YAVUZER, H. (1997). Resimleriyle çocuk ‘Resimleriyle çocuğu tanıma. İstanbul: Remzi Kitabevi.
YEŞILYAPRAK, B. (Editör), (2011), Eğitim Psikolojisi Pegem Yayınları, Ankara

Thank you for copying data from http://www.arastirmax.com