BEŞ-ALTI YAŞ ÇOCUKLARI İÇİN EGO SAĞLAMLIĞI ÖLÇEĞİ’NİN (ÖĞRETMEN-ANNE-BABA FORMLARI) GÜVENİRLİK GEÇERLİK ÇALIŞMASI

THE RELIABILITY-VALIDITY STUDY FOR THE EGO RESILIENCY SCALE (TEACHER-MOTHER-FATHER FORMS) FOR CHILDREN AGED BETWEEN 5 AND 6
Abstract (2. Language): 
Even though the number of psychological resiliency-related studies has increased, in Turkey, in recent years, the number of studies regarding preschool children is still inadequate. Studies that measure, improve, and support the psychological-resiliency of preschool children carry grave importance. Measuring instruments should be developed or adapted in order for subjectrelated studies to be conducted.Taking this into consideration, the purpose of this study is to conduct reliability-validity studies for the Children’s Ego Resiliency Scale’s Teacher, Mother, and Father Forms, developed for preschool children. The 12-item scale is a 9-point likert-type measuring instrument developed to set forth the ego-resiliency of children based on the views of their parents or teachers. The study group comprised of 120 children, aged between 5 and 6, from families with low socio-economic background, attending preschool, and their parents (120 mothers and 120 fathers). Study results prove that the Turkish version of the Children’s Ego Resiliency Scale’s Teacher, Mother, and Father Forms are reliable and valid.
Özet (Orjinal Dil): 
Türkiye’de, psikolojik sağlamlık ile ilgili yapılan çalışmalar son yıllarda artış göstermekle birlikte okul öncesi dönem çocuklarına yönelik araştırmaların oldukça yetersiz olduğu görülmektedir. Okul öncesi dönemdeki çocukların psikolojik sağlamlıklarını ölçmek, psikolojik sağlamlığı geliştirmeye, de steklemeye yönelik çalışmaların gerçekleştirilmesi büyük önem taşımaktadır. Konu ile ilgili çalışmaların yapılabilmesi için ölçme araçlarının geliştirilmesi ya da uyarlanması gereklidir. Ölçme araçları sayesinde, küçük çocukların ego sağlamlık düzeyleri ortaya konulabilecektir.Buradan yola çıkarak araştırmanın amacı, okul öncesi dönemi çocuklar için geliştirilen Çocuk Ego Sağlamlığı Ölçeği’nin Öğretmen-Anne ve Baba Formları’nın güvenirlik geçerlik çalışmalarını gerçekleştirmektir. Ölçek, çocukların anne-baba/veya öğretmen görüşleri doğrultusunda ego sağlamlıklarını ortaya koymayı amaçlayan, 12 maddeden oluşan, dokuzlu likert tipi bir ölçme aracıdır. Çalışma grubu, okul öncesi eğitime devam eden, aileleri düşük sosyo-ekonomik düzeyden gelen 5-6 yaş grubu 120 çocuk ve ebeveynlerinden (120 anne-120 baba) oluşmaktadır. Çalışmanın sonuçları, Çocuk Ego Sağlamlığı Ölçeği’nin Öğretmen-Anne ve Baba Formlarının Türkçe versiyonlarının güvenilir ve geçerli olduğunu ortaya koymaktadır.
Referanslar: 

BENARD, B. (1991), “Fostering Resiliency in Kids: Protective Factors in the Family, School and Community”, Portland, Oregon, Western Center for Drug-Free Schools and Communities. ED335781.
BUCKNER, J. C., MEZZACAPPA, E., & BEARDSLEE, W. R. (2003), “Characteristics of the Resilient Youths Living in Poverty: The Role of Self-Regulatory Processes”, Development and Psychopathology 15, pp. 139-162.
CUMBERLAND-Li, A., EISENBERG, N., & REISER, M. (2004), “Relations of Young Children’s Agreeableness and Resiliency to Effortful Control and Impulsivity”, Social Development, 13:2, pp. 193-212.
EISENBERG, N., FABES, R. A., GUTHRIE, I. K., MURPHY, B. C., MASZK, P., HOLMGREN, R., & SUH, K. (1996), “The Relations of Regulation and Emotionality to Problem Behavior in Elementary School Children”, Development and Psychopathology, 8, pp. 141–162.
EISENBERG, N., SPINRAD, T. L., FABES, R. A., REISER, M., CUMBERLAND, A., SHEPARD, S. A., VALIENTE, C., LOSOYA, S. H., GUTHRIE, I. K., & THOMPSON, M. (2004), “The Relations of Effortful Control and Impulsivity to Children’s Resiliency and Adjustment”, Child Development, 75:1, pp. 25-46.
GIZIR, C. A. (2004), “Academic Resilience: An Investigation of Protective Factors Contributing to the Academic Achievement of Eight Grade Students in Poverty”, Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Ankara: Middle East Technical University.
GREENE, R. (2002), Human behavior theory: A resilience orientation. In R. Greene (Ed.), “Resiliency: An Integrated Approach to Practice, Policy, and Research”, (pp.1-28). Washington, DC: NASW Press.
GREENE, R., & CONRAD, A. P. (2002), Basic assumptions and terms. In R. Greene (Ed.), “Resiliency: An Integrated Approach to Practice, Policy, and Research”, (pp.29-62). Washington, DC: NASW Press.
GÜRGAN, U. (2006), “The Effect of the Group Program of Resiliency Level of University Students”, Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Ankara: Ankara University.
HAYNES, N. M. (2005), “Personalized Leadership for Effective Schooling”, www.atdp.berkeley.edu/haynes_keynote_04.ppt retrieved 29.05. 2011
HENDERSON, N., & MILSTEIN, M. M. (1996), “Resiliency in Schools: Making It Happen for Students and Educators”, Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press.
KARASAR, N. (1994), “Scientific Research Method: Concepts, Principles, Techniques”, Ankara: 3 A Research and Training Consultancy. Llc.
MARTINEK, T. J., & HELLISON, D. R. (1997), “Fostering resiliency in underserved youth through physical activity”, Quest, 49, pp. 34-49.
MASTEN, A. S. (2001), “Ordinary magic: resilience processes in development”, American Psychologist, 56: 3, pp. 227-238
MASTEN, A. S., MORISON, P., PELLEGRINI, D., & TELIEGEN, A. (1990), Competence under stress: risk and protective factors. In J. Rolf, A. S. Masten, D. Cicchetti, K. H. & Nuechterlein S. Weintraub (Eds.), “Risk and Protective Factors in the Development of Psychopathology” (pp. 236-256). New York: Cambridge University Press.
MENDEZ, J., FANTUZZO, J., & CICCHETTI, D. (2002), “Profiles of social competence among low- income African American preschool children”. Child Development, 73, pp. 1085-1100.
NORMAN, E. (2000), Introduction: The strengths perspective and resiliency enhancement-a natural partnership. In E. Norman (Eds.), “Resiliency Enhancement” (p.1-16). New York: Columbia University Press.
ÖĞÜLMÜŞ, S. (2001), “Indomitableness as a Personal Trait”. 1st National Children and Crime Symposium: Manifesto presented for Reason and Precaution Studies, 29-30 March, Ankara.
ÖNDER, A. (1997), “Adapting the Self- Perception Scale for Young Children to Turkish, and Investigating the Self-Perception of Preschool Children Based on Age, Gender, Premature Birth, and Period They Attend School”, Unpublised doctoral dissertation. İstanbul: Marmara University.
ÖZCAN, B. (2005), “Comparing High School Students with Divorced Parents and High School Student Living with Both Parents in Terms of Indomitableness Properties and Protective Factors”, Unpublished master thesis. Ankara: Ankara University.
SIPAHIOĞLU, Ö. (2008), “Investigating Resilience of Adolescents in Different Risk Groups”, Unpublished master thesis. Konya: Selçuk University.
SMEEKENS, S., RIKSEK-WALRAVEN, J. M., & VAN BAKEL, H. J. A. (2007), “Cortisol Reactions in Five-Year-Olds to Parent–Child Interaction: The Moderating Role of Ego-Resiliency”, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48:7, pp. 649-656.
REED-VICTOR, E., & STRONGE, J. H. (2002), “Homeless Students and Resilience: Staff Perspectives on Individual and Environmental Factors”, Journal of Children Poverty, 8:2, pp. 159-183.
TUSAIE, K., & DYER, J. (2004), “Resilience: A Historical Review of the Construct”, Holistic Nursing Practice, 18, pp. 3-8.
WERNER, E. E., & SMITH, R. S. (1992),
“Overcoming the Odds: High-Risk Children From Birth to Adulthood”, New York: Cornell University Pres. (ED 344979).
WERNER, E. E., & SMITH, R. S. (2001), “Journeys from Childhood to Midlife: Risk, Resilience, and Recovery”, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press

Thank you for copying data from http://www.arastirmax.com