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9-16 YAŞLARI ARASINDAKİ OTİZMLİ VE TİPİK GELİŞİM GÖSTEREN ÇOCUKLARIN EMPATİ BECERİ DÜZEYLERİNİN İNCELENMESİ

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INVESTIGATING EMPATHY SKILL LEVELS OF CHILDREN WITH AUTISM AND TYPICALLY DEVELOPED CHILDREN BETWEEN THE AGES OF 9-16

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Sayfa Aralığı:: 
603-614

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Abstract (Original Language): 
Bu çalışmanın amacı 9-16 yaş arasında yüksek fonksiyonlu otizm veya Asperger sendromu tanılı çocukların empati becerilerini tanı, yaş, cinsiyet değişkenleri açısından normal gelişim gösteren yaşıtlarıyla karşılaştırmalı olarak incelemektir. Çalışma betimsel araştırma yöntemlerinden ilişkisel tarama modeli kullanılarak yapılmıştır. Çalışmaya otizm spektrum grubundan (yüksek fonksiyonlu otizm ve/veya Asperger Sendromu tanılı) 28 ve normal gelişim gösteren 42 çocuk katılmıştır. Veriler Byrant tarafından 1982 de geliştirilen ve Yılmaz- Yüksel tarafından 2003’te Türkçe’ye uyarlanan “Çocuklar için Empati Ölçeği” ve araştırmacılar tarafından hazırlanan Demografik Bilgi Formu kullanılarak toplanmıştır. Tanı grubuna göre yapılan karşılaştırma sonuçlarında, yüksek işlevli otizmli grubun Asperger sendromu tanılı ve normal gelişim gösteren akranlarına göre daha düşük empati düzeyine sahip olduğu belirlenmiştir. Cinsiyete göre yapılan karşılaştırmada yüksek işlevli otizm tanılı kızların, YFO’li erkeklere göre daha yüksek performans gösterdiği saptanmıştır. Yüksek işlevli otizm, Asperger Sendromu ve normal gelişim gösteren kızların empati puanları arasında anlamlı farklılık bulunmamıştır. Ancak otizm spektrum grubundakilerin az da olsa daha düşük performans gösterdikleri görülmüştür. Yaşa göre yapılan karşılaştırmada 12 yaş altı YFO ve AS’lu çocukların puanlarının normal gelişim gösteren çocukların puanlarından anlamlı ölçüde farklılaşmadığı, ancak 12 yaş üzerinde farklılaştığı belirlenmiştir. 12 yaş üzeri normal gelişim gösteren çocukların empati beceri düzeyinin otizm spektrum grubundaki yaşıtlarında daha yüksek olduğu belirlenmiştir. Bulgular alanyazın ışığında tartışılmıştır.
Abstract (2. Language): 
The purpose of this study is to investigate empathy skill levels of children with high functioning autism or Asperger Syndrome between the ages of 9 to 16 in terms of diagnosis, age and gender variables and compare the results with typically developed peers. This study was designed as a relational survey method, which is one of the descriptive methods. The subjects were 28 children with autism spectrum disorder (HFA and AS) and 42 typically developed children. Data collected via an adapted version of the “Empathy Scale for Children” and demographic forms. The results indicated a significant difference in empathy skill levels of the children with different diagnosis. The study reveals that children with high functioning autism (HFA) have lower empathic skills, whereas children with Asperger Syndrome (AS) do not differ from typically developed (TD) children in terms of empathic skill levels. Female children with HFA have a higher performance on a self-report empathy questionnaire than male children with HFA and there is no significant difference between females with HFA, AS and TD females. On the other hand, females with AS and HFA autism revealed slightly lower performances. According to the results, younger children (n<12) with AS and HFA do not differ from TD children. Children with HFA, older than 11 years of age revealed lower performances than children with AS and TD children.
DOI: 
http://dx.doi.org/10.9761/JASSS_337

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