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12 Haftalık Pilates Uygulamalarının 65 Yaş Üstü Kadınlarda Algılanan Öznel Sağlığa Etkisi

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The Effects of 12 Week Pilates Exercises on Subjective Well Being in Older Adult Women Over 65

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Sayfa Aralığı:: 
37–48

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Abstract (Original Language): 
Bu çalışma iki ayrı aşamadan oluşmaktadır. Birinci aşamadaki çalışmanın amacı Stathi ve Fox (2004) tarafından geliştirilen “Sağlıklı Yaşlanma Profili (SYP)”nin Türk yaşlılar için geçerliğini ve güvenirliğini test etmektir. İkinci aşamadaki çalışmanın amacı ise 12 haftalık pilates egzersizi uygulamalarının 65 yaş üstü kadınlarda algılanan öznel sağlığa etkisini incelemektir. SYP’nin geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması Ankara ilindeki çeşitli huzur evlerinde ikamet eden 65 yaş üstü 86 kadın ( yaş= 71.15  6.63 yıl) ve 85 erkek ( yaş= 73.05  7.45 yıl) toplam 171 kişi üzerinden gerçekleştirilmiştir. 12 haftalık egzersiz uygulamalarına ise Ankara ilindeki bir huzur evinde ikamet eden 65 yaş üstü, 45 egzersiz ( yaş= 72.80  6.74 yıl) 40 kontrol ( yaş= 74.03  5.73 yıl) olmak üzere toplam 85 kadın gönüllü olarak katılmıştır. SYP’nin geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışmaları egzersiz öncesi dönemde tamamlanmış ve envanterin maddelerine uygulanan maksimum olasılık faktör analizi envanterin %65.02’sini açıklayan 6 faktörlü bir yapı ortaya koysa da, düşük faktör yüklerinden dolayı (<.40) iki madde (madde12, 23) ve düşük iç tutarlık değeri nedeniyle (0.23) dördüncü faktör envanterden çıkarılmıştır. Pilates egzersizleri haftada üç gün ve günde bir saat olmak üzere 12 hafta boyunca uygulanmıştır. Tüm ölçümler egzersiz öncesi ve sonrasındaki bir haftalık süre içerisinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Egzersiz uygulamaları ile ilgili olarak yapılan karışık dizaynla tekrarlı ölçümlerde çoklu varyans analizi sonuçları, SYP’nin “algılanan fiziksel sağlık” ve “bağımsızlık” boyutları için ön-test ve son test değerleri arasında anlamlı artışlar olduğunu ortaya koymuştur. Sonuç olarak, SYP’nin 23 maddelik beş faktörlü yapısıyla Türk yaşlılarda egzersizle ilişkili öznel sağlığın çok boyutlu yapısını ölçmek için geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçme aracı olduğu, 12 haftalık pilates egzersizlerinin 65 yaş üstü kadınlarda algılanan öznel sağlığı kısmen olumlu yönde etkilediği söylenebilir.
Abstract (2. Language): 
“Present study is composed of two separate phases. The purpose of the first phase was to determine the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the ‘Ageing Well Profile (AWP)’ developed by Stathi and Fox (2004). The purpose of the second study was to examine the effects of 12 week pilates exercises on relevant subjective well being in older adult women over the age of 65. Eighty six female (Mage= 71.15  6.63 year) and 85 male (Mage= 73.05  7.45 year) from several nursing homes in Ankara were recruited to participate in the study of reliability and validity of the AWP. A total of 85 women, 45 as exercise ( age= 72.80 6.74 years) and 40 as control ( yaş= 74.03  5.73 yıl) group, from a nursing home in Ankara voluntarily participated in exercise interventions. Although maximum likelihood factor analyses of the AWP indicated a 6 factor structure with 65.02 % explained variance, 2 items (12 and 23) and a factor (4th factor with two items) were excluded from the inventory because of the low factor loadings (.40) and internal consistency values (.23), respectively. Participants in the exercise group attended pilates sessions of 60 minutes per day, 3 days in a week for 12 weeks. All measurements were taken 1 week before and 1 week after the exercise treatments. The results of 2 X 2 X 5 Mixed design MANOVA revealed that “physical well being” and “independence” scales of the AWP significantly improved from pre to post measurements. Within the scope of present results, it can be said that with 23 items and 5 factor structure, AWP is reliable and valid instrument in order to measure physical activity relevant subjective well being in Turkish older adults, 12 week pilates exercises were partially effective in improving perceived subjective well being in older adult women over 65.

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