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FARKLI BAR AĞIRLIKLARININ KALDIRILDIĞI KOPARMA TEKNİĞİNİN ÜÇ BOYUTLU BİYOMEKANİK ANALİZİ

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3-DIMENSIONAL BIOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF SNATCH TECHNIQUE LIFTED IN THE DIFFERENT LOADS

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Sayfa Aralığı:: 
139-156

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Abstract (Original Language): 
Çalışmanın amacı elit haltercilerin bir tekrar maksimal (1TM) bar ağırlığının yüzdelerinde (%60, %80, %100) yaptıkları koparma kaldırışlarının 3 boyutlu kinematiklerini incelemek ve bar ağırlığındaki artışların koparma tekniği üzerindeki biyomekanik etkilerini karşılaştırmaktır. Araştırma Türkiye halter milli takımını oluşturan çeşitli kategorideki 7 erkek sporcu üzerinde yapılmıştır. Ölçümler milli takım kampı sırasında sporcuların yarışmaya hazırlık periyodunun başlangıcında gerçekleştirilmiştir. Vücut ağırlık merkezi (VAM) ve bar hareketinin 3 boyutlu kinematik analizinde APAS yazılımı (Ariel Performance Analysis System, San Diego, USA) kullanılmıştır. Kaldırışların kinematikleri ve haltercilerin kaldırış sırasında yaptığı toplam iş ve toplam güç çıktıları 0.05 anlamlılık düzeyinde tekrarlayan ölçümlerde parametrik olmayan Friedman testi ile karşılaştırıldı. İkili karşılaştırmalarda Benforroni testi kullanıldı. Analizler sonucunda haltercilerin birinci çekiş dikey iş, toplam dikey iş, toplam VAM dikey iş, ikinci çekiş VAM dikey iş arasında anlamlı farklılık bulunmuştur (p<0,05). İkinci çekiş dikey iş, toplam yatay iş ve ikinci çekiş yatay iş arasında ise anlamlı farklılık bulunmamıştır. Koparma kaldırışları sonucunda haltercilerin ikinci çekiş yatay güç, toplam güç ve toplam relatif güç çıktıları arasında anlamlı farklılık bulunmazken, birinci çekiş dikey güç, ikinci çekiş dikey güç, toplam dikey güç, VAM toplam dikey güç, ikinci çekiş VAM dikey güç, ikinci çekiş toplam güç ve ikinci çekiş relatif güç değerlerinde anlamlı farklılık bulunmuştur (p<0,05). Kinematik değişkenler açısından bakıldığında ikinci çekişin süresi ve VAM’nin bar altına giriş süresinde anlamlı farklılık görülmezken, barın en yüksek dikey yer değiştirmesi, en yüksek dikey hızı, VAM en yüksek dikey yer değiştirmesi, VAM bar altına giriş hızı, birinci çekiş süresi, geçiş süresi, verimlilik ve barın düşüş mesafesi arasında anlamlı farklılık bulunmuştur (p<0,05). Sonuç olarak, koparma tekniğinde bar ağırlığı arttırıldığında barın ulaştığı yükseklik ve hız azalmasına karşın vücudun bar altına girişi hızlanmıştır. Bar ve vücuttan oluşan sistemde bar ağırlığının artması, çekiş evresinde barın doğrusal kinematiğinde azalmaya, vücudun doğrusal kinematiğinde artışa neden olmuştur.
Abstract (2. Language): 
The purpose of the study is to examine 3 dimensional kinematics of snatch lifting of elite weightlifters at one repetition maximal barbell weight percentage (60%, 80%, 100%) and to compare biomechanical effects of increased barbell weights on snatch technique. The study has been done on 7 elite male athletes in various categories of Turkey Weightlifting National Team. The measurements have been achieved during national team camp at the beginning of preparation to competition. APAS software (Ariel Performance Analysis System, San Diego, USA) has been used at the 3 dimensional analyze the movements of center of gravity (CG) and barbell. The measuring of total work and total power outputs of weightlifters during lifting and kinematics of lifts have been compared using repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Benforroni test in 0,05 meaning level of significance. As a result of analyses, there have been significantly difference between vertical work done on the barbell during the first pull, total vertical work, total work done of CG and work done of CG during second pull (p<0.05). On the other hand, there has not been found significantly difference work done on the barbell during second pull, total horizontal work done on the barbell, horizontal work done on the barbell during second pull. At the end of the snatch there were no significantly difference of lifters between horizontal power outputs at second pull, total power outputs and total relative power outputs of lifters but there has been found significantly difference between power outputs at the first pull, power outputs at second pull, total vertical power outputs, CG total vertical power outputs, and CG power outputs, total power outputs, relative power outputs during second pull (p<0.05). When we consider in respect of kinematics variables, there were no significantly difference the time of second pull and drop under time of CG, on the other hand there were significantly difference between the maximum vertical displacement of the barbell, and its maximum vertical velocity, the maximum vertical displacement of the CG, drop under velocity of CG, the time of first pull, the time of transition, efficiency of lifting and drop displacement of barbell (p<0.05). In conclusion, when the barbell weight has been increased at the snatch technique, although height of barbell and its velocity is decreased, the velocity of drop under the barbell of the body is increased. Increased of barbell weight induced a decrease of linear kinematics of barbell, and a increase of linear kinematics of body at the system composed the body and barbell during pull phase.

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