DƏDƏ QORQUD DASTANINDA AZƏRBAYCAN ETNOQRAFİYASININ İNİKASI

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ETHNOGRAPHIC INFORMATION CONCERNING AZERBAIJAN CONTAINED IN THE DEDE KORKUT DASTAN
1999
Volume: 
2
Number: 
4
Sayfa Aralığı:: 
80-105
Publication Language: 
Azerbaijani
Abstract (Original Language): 
Dədo Qorqud Morkozi Asiyanın böyiik bir hissosinin tarixi xozi-nosidir. Bıı dastan öz yaradıcısmın ctnik nıilli kimliyinin dork olün-nıasmın. tarixinin, adətlorinin vo digor doyorlorinin başlıca nıonbo-\ ıdir. Dastan a/adlıq uğrunda nıübarizoni təronilüiii cdir. II. F. V'on Dits 1815-ci ildo dastanın əlyazmasım lapmış vo bir his-svisini alman dilino çevirmişdir. Bundan sonra "Dodo Qorqud" bir Çox dilloro toreünıo olunnııışdur. Dastanın yegano digor niisxosi 1950-ci ildo l-ttori Rossi torolin-don Vatikan kitabxanasmda askar cdilnıisdir. "Dodo Qorqud" kağıza köçürülono qodor burada fosvir olunan hadi-solor IX-X osrlordo xalqın adətfərində ya.şamışdı. "Banısı Beyrok" lbsli on qodinı dövro aid olan, son doroco moş-hıır Morkəzi Asiya dastanı "Alpamış"ın məzmununa çox yaxındır. riirkiyodo "Dodo Qorqud" dastanlarınm todqiqi tarixi Kilisli Rülbtin 1916-cı ildo İstanbulda buraxdığı kitabla baslanır. 1938-ci ildo iso yeıie do Türkiyədə Orxan Şaiq Gökyay torotindon dastan isıq iizii görnıüşdür. Dastanın tanı nıotni 1939-cu ildo Həmid Araslı torotindon Bakı-da nosr olıınmıısdu. Bundan sonra. 1962-ci \o 1977-ci illordo iso gi-riş olavo olunmaqla dastan yenidən noşr olundu. Üzorindo 189()-cı ildən işlədiyi güman olunan V.V. Bartoldun "Kniqa moyeqo Dcda Qorqııda" 1950-qi ildo onun ölümündən sonra. M. Foxrəddin Kırzı-oğiunun "Dodo Qorqud oğuznanıolori" iso 1952-ci ildə oxuculara toqdinı olundu. Hətnin il Fttori Rossinin ttaliyada "Kitabi-Dədo Qorqud", 1958-ci ildo Almaniyada Yoakinı llcyn (Joachim Ucin's) torotindon çap olunmusdu. Mohorrom Frginin işindən sonra iki ingilis versiyası işlənmişdir. Bıınlardan on uğurlusu Cofrey Lyus (Geoffrey Lewis) torotindon 1974-ci ildə, fars nəşri 1978-ci ildo Tobrizdo, dastanm serb-xorvat dillofine torcümosi 1983-cü ildo Slavolcub Dcudciç (Slavoljub Djindjich) torotindon (o həmçinin dastanm işlorimokdo olan çex tor-ciimosi haqqinda molumat verit), 1978-ci ildo iso Vilnusda nəşr olunmuşdur. IX-XI əsrlərdən bori dildon-dilo keçən "Dodo Qorqud" dastanı ana difimizdo olan on doyorli yazih monbodir. Osor Azorbaycan xal-qmin monovi dünyasını. hoyat torzini. adot ve ononolorini oks ctdi-ron misilsiz sorvotdir. Bu baximdan. "Dodo Qorqud" dastani orta osrlordo Azorbaycan xalqmin etnoqraliyasmi öyronmok üçün çox taydalıdır. Dastanda Azorbaycana golmiş Oguz taylalarmdan bohs cdilir. Buradan aydm görüniir ki, onlar Azorbaycana dastanm kağıza köeü-rülmosindon xcyli əvvol golmişlor. Türkdilli taytalar olan Xozorlor, Qi|)çaqlar vo Oğuzlar VI-VII osrlorin ovvollorindon baslayaraq Azorbaycan orazisindo moskunlaşmağa başlamış. ycrli ohali ilo qay-nayıb qarışmışlar. "Dodo Qorqud"dan aldığımız molumat Azorbaycan xalqının IX-XI osrlordo monovi sivilizasiyasını öyronmok baxımmdan çox ma-raqhdır. Bu dastanda, cyni z.amanda, dini bayrandar, usaq oyunları vo oyloncolor haqqında molumatlarla rastlaşırıq. Biz dastanı ctnik nöqtcyi- nozordon öyronmoyo başladığımızdan bu mövzu ilo bağlı daha çox molumat ala bilorik.
Abstract (2. Language): 
Dede Korkut, one of the historical treasures of a large portion of Central Asia, is a dastan, "the principal repository of ethnic identity, history, customs and the value systems of its owners and composers.... It commemorates ... struggles for freedom.'" Dede Korkut has been rendered into a number of languages over the last two centuries, since itcaught the attention of U.K. Von Diez, who published a partial German translation in 1815, based on a manuscript found in the Royal Library of Dresden. The only other manuscript of Dede Korkut was discovered in 1950 by Ettore Rossi in the Vatican library. Until Dede Korkut was transcribed on paper, the events depicted therein survived in the oral tradition, at least from the ninth and tenth centuries.2 The "Bamsi Beyrek" chapter of Dede Korkut preserves almost verbatim the immensely popular Central Asian dastan Alpamysh, dating from even an earlier time.' Editio princeps of Dede Korkut was made by Kilisli Ri fat [Bilge] in 1916 in Istanbul, which was followed by that of Orhan Saik Gokyay (Istanbul, 1938). The first full-text, "Baku Edition" of Dede Korkut was made by H. Arasli in 1939 (reprinted in 1962 with an annotated introduction and again in 1977). V.V. Bartold's Kniga moego dede Korkuta, on which he probably began work in the 1890s, was posthumously issued in 1950.4 M. Fahrettin Kirzioglu's Dede Korkut Oguznameleri appeared in Istanbul in 1952; Ettore Rossi's Kitab-i Dede Qorqut was published in Italian in the same year, followed by Joachim Hein's 1958 German edition. After Muharrem Ergin's Dede Korkut Kitabi/ there came two English versions, the first of which was a collaborative effort among three well-known scholars,6 and the second, a highly readable Book of Dede Korkut by Geoffrey L. Lewis.7 In 1978 a Persian edition became available in Tabriz.8 A Serbo-Croatian rendition, Knijka Dede Korkuta was published in 1983 by Slavoljub Djindjich, who also reported the ongoing work on a Czech translation.9 A Lithuanian edition was evidently issued in Vilnius in 1978 under the title Dede Korkudo sakmes.10 Dede Korkut is shared by a large assortment of Turkic groups, including, but not limited to, the Oghuz/Turkmen" confederations, whose origins are easily traceable to pre- Islamic times, and their numerous current-day descendants, also encompassing the Azerbaijan population. Oghuz literati of the middle ages also composed numerous genealogies, many of which were edited by a seventeenth-century ruler of the Turkmen who collected them into two separate volumes. Since the early eighteenth century, these have been translated into French, English, and Russian.12 These genealogies are quite apart from the dastan genre, and constitute yet another series of reference markers on the identity map. Moreover, there is another dastan connected with the Oghuz, named for the eponymous Oghuz Khan.13 Memmed Dadashzade is an ethnographer-folklorist at the Institute of History, Academy of Sciences, Baku, whose work on the significance of dastans is pathbreaking. His "Ethnographic Information Concerning Azerbaijan Contained in the Dede Korkut Dastan," originally written in Azerbaijan Turk, is a fine sample of the ongoing efforts by Azerbaijan authors to reclaim their historical and cultural heritage. The latest round of those efforts commenced almost ten years before the "openness" and "restructuring" campaigns of Gorbachev.14 Many a topic is broached here for the first time since the previous generation of Turk scholars and literati (who raised the same issues) were lost to the Stalinist "liquidations"15 or to the "ideological assault" waged on all dastans in 1950-52.16 After the publication of Dadashzade's article in 1977, a series of similar works appeared in various periodicals and volumes that were clearly intended for the Azerbaijan audience.17 The tentativeness, careful wording, and particular formulation of some arguments found in the Dadashzade paper are directly attributable to the constraints that were prevailing at the time18 and made this study a work of courage.
References: 

1. M. Rafili, Drevnaiaia Azerbaizhanskaia literatura (do nachala XVI v.) (Baku, 1941), p. 16.
2. Dr. Vlehmed Cevad, Tercume Tarih Tabari a/ ab\ali balgay (Tahran. 1332 [1914 I915J). p. 327 [in Perso-Arabic script].
3. Matcrialv po istorii Azerbaidzhana i/ 1 aıiklı-al-Kamil ibn al-Asira (Baku. 1940). p. fill
4. Getran Tebrizi, Divan (Tabriz. 1333 (1916 1917J) p. 5 [in Perso-Arabic script]. [This is the volume from which the above-cited Azerbaijan Turkish translation of the same work was made.]
5. Kniga rnoego Dede Korkuda: Oguzskii gcroicheskii epos. V.V. Bartold. trans. (Moscow-Leningrad, P>(>2). p. 120.
6. Ibid., p. 3.
7. Azerbaijan Ldebiyati Tarihi | History of Azerbaijan Literature], vol. I (Baku. I960), p. 53.
S. For detailed information on the language of the dastans see L.Y1. Demircizade. Kitab-i Dede Korkut dastanlarinin Dili (Baku. 1959) p. (•>.
9. Azerbaijan Ldebiyati Tarihi, vol. I. p. 54.
10. Kitabi Dede Korkut (Baku. 1939). p. 22 [see The Book of Dede Korkut. Ci. L. Lewis, trans., p. 31. "The Story of Boghach Khan"].
I I. Azerbaijan Balk dastanlari. vol. 1 (Baku. 1961). p. 124. [The epithet Ciurbani evokes images of "sacrificial." On the poet Ciurbani. see P. Ffendiev. Azerbaijan Sifahi Balk Ldebiyati (Baku. 19X1), p. I6S. This is a textbook for the Institute of Pedagogy. It is not unusual for parents to "pledge a vow.
TI IMX.RAI ' I IK INFORMATION CONCERNING AZERBAI JAN . . . 18
sacrifice" when they desire offspring. See Lewis. "Bamsi Beyrek." in The Book of Dede Korkut].
12.Kitabi Dede Korkut. p. 26.
13.Fsruk-sarhos. [Dadashzade is providing the current-use equivalents for a number of words. In this case, the old Turkish word esruk. also found in the eleventh-century DLT (see above), is "intoxicated.")
14.Kitabi Dede Korkut. p. S7 [ellipsis by Dadashzade].
15.Ibid., p. 76.
16.Ibid., p. 35.
17. Ibid., p. 32. IS. Ibid., p. 130.
19.Beyaz at cins at ["white horse" symbolizing a thoroughbred].
20.Tuman-chok saydi [numerous].
21. Gaytaban—deve yatagi [specific place where the camel herd stays or is sheltered].
22.Kitabi Dede Korkut. p. 22.
23.Kulun-at balasi [colt|.
24.Koshek-deve balasi |camel-colt|.
102
Mammad DADASHZADE
25. Kitabi Dede Korkut, p. 39.
26. Evliyayi seyahatnama, vol. 3, p. 13 [in Perso-Arabic script].
27. Ashiklar, vol. 2. (Baku. 1960), p. 23.
28. Kitabi Dede Korkut, p. 144. [See Togan, Oguz Destani, for the earliest mention of "cart."]
29. Ibid., p. 34 [see the Lewis translation, p. 46].
30. Ibid., p. 36 [see the Lewis translation, p. 50].
31. Yoghurt-katik. In some places in Azerbaijan, the term yoghurt is still used.
32. Kitabi Dede Korkut, p. 157. [The original has two footnotes designated number 32 in the text, but only one footnote 32 is referenced at the bottom of the page. The second note 32 is not otherwise identified.]
33. The word kaftan was utilized in this context until the twentieth century.
34. Yal—it yali [dog slop].
35. Zogal [it appears that notes 35 and 36 were reversed
36. during typesetting].
37. Kitabi Dede Korkut, p. 33.
38. Ibid., p. 36 [see the Lewis translation, p. 44].
39. Tugulga—demir bork [iron helmet] [see the Lewis translation, p. 49. The order of the original footnotes was scrambled, especially those pertaining to "dogwood" and "helmet"].
40. Aya—sapanin tas koyulan yeri.
41. Kitabi Dede Korkut. p. 40.
42. Ibid., p. 34.
43. Goat-hair [kechi tuku] is also called gezil.
44. Kitabi Dede Korkut, p. 129 [this word basically means "noise." Another term for this toy is "patlangaçh."]
45. Ibid. (Baku, 1939), p. 26 [see Lewis, p. 35].
46. Ibid., pp. 48-49 [see Lewis].
47. Ibid., p. 84.
48. Ibid., p. 94.
49. Kitabi Dede Korkut (Baku, 1939). p. 20. [See Lewis, p. 28. There are slight variations between lines provided by Dadashzade and the Lewis translation].
50. Ibid., p. 19 [Lewis, p. 28].
51. Ibid., p. 93 [Lewis, p. 117].
52. Ibid., p. 45.
53. Ibid., p. 49 [Lewis, p. 65].
54. Kitabi Dodo Korkut, p. 51.
55. Ibid., p. 52 [Lewis, p. 67].
56. Ibid., pp. 49-51 [Lewis, p. 67].
57. Ibid., p. 55.
58. Ibid., p. 47.
59. This tradition was still alive until the revolution.
60. Kitabi Dede Korkut, p. 53.
61. The terms gaynata [kayin-ata: father-in-law] and gaynana [kayin-ana: mother-in-law] are still in use.
62. Kitabi Dede Korkut, p. 53.
63. The tradition of decorating hands with henna began during the Middle Ages.
64. Kitabi Dede Korkut, p. 137.
65. Ibid., p. 53.
66. Ibid., p. 137.
67. Ibid., pp. 90-91.
68. Said Nefisi, in his introduction to the Nizaminin Kasideler ve Gazeller Divani, basing himself on the works of the authors of the Middle Ages, states that even in the tenth century in Azerbaijan, Moslems do not constitute a majority.
69. Kitabi Dede Korkut, p. 55.
70. Ibid., p. 126.
71. Ibid., p. 31.
r
72. Kitabi Dede Korkut, pp. 58-59 [Lewis, p. 75].
73. Ibid., p. 145.
74. Ibid., p. 162 [see also Lewis, p. 190].
75. E. M. Damircizade, Azerbaijan Ldebi Dilinin Inkisaf Yollari (Baku, 1958), p. 18.
76. Azerbaijan Incesanati, vol. 7 (Baku, 1962), p. 38.
77. Kitabi Dede Korkut, p. 42.
78. Ibid., p. 64.

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